Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information. D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Hydroxychloroquine side effects retinopathy Teva-chloroquine phosphate Plaquenil medicine Can you overdose on plaquenil Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. With hepatic disease or alcoholism or in conjunction with known hepatotoxic drugs. Central Nervous System Effects Chloroquine may increase the risk of convulsions in patients with a history of. Disease Entity. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil and chloroquine cause ocular toxicity to various parts of the eye such as the cornea, ciliary body, and retina. Chloroquine can also induce cataract formation; however, no reports of hydroxychloroquine and cataract have been reported. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Active against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax & P. malariae and most strains of Plasmodium falciparum Precise mechanism not known Bioavailability: ~89% Peak plasma time: 1-2 hr Distributed widely in body tissues (eg, eyes, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs) where retention prolonged; crosses placenta; enters breast milk Partially in liver Half-life: 3-5 days Excretion: urine (~70% as unchanged drug); acidification of urine increases elimination Small amounts may be present in urine months following discontinuation of therapy The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Chloroquine in hepatic dysfunction Chemotherapy Dosing in the Setting of Liver Dysfunction., CHLOROQUINE PHOSPHATE, USP Hydroxychloroquine sulfate side effects rheumatoid arthritisPlaquenil and period changesPlaquenil visual field codingHydroxychloroquine treatment of rheumatoid arthritis Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. Occasionally it is used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. Chloroquine - Wikipedia. Hydroxychloroquine toxicity - EyeWiki. Chloroquine Disease Interactions -. Chloroquine Phosphate. Chloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites in countries where malaria is common. Malaria parasites can enter the body through these mosquito bites, and then live in body tissues such as red blood cells or the liver. Hydroxychloroquine is considered safer than chloroquine during pregnancy and lactation. Hydroxychloroquine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and steady-state concentrations are reached after 4–6 weeks; 45% of hydroxychloroquine binds to plasma proteins that are deposited in tissues such as the liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Evidence Acquisition We searched MEDLINE Pub Med, OVID, MD Consult, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for the following keywords liver disease, anesthesia and liver disease, regional anesthesia in liver disease, epidural anesthesia in liver disease and spinal anesthesia in liver disease, for the period of 1966 to 2013.